What caused terror in Mumbai, Pune, Delhi and Hyderabad two days ago is not a strange happening in the country .The anti socials, Jihadis and even security forces do not have to place orders , get licenses or even wait for procuring such explosive tools now . They could assemble themselves or order them as per requirement for fat fees now days.
IED’s have become a popular weapon of not only ideology based arsonists but also those who use it for gain publicity in many parts of India. In Andhra Pradesh we have heard of tiffin box bomb, bucket bomb, scooter bomb and now plastic carry bag bomb besides wall hanging bombs. There are also Vehicle borne IEDs (VHIED’s), chlorine liquiod IEDs, RDX IEDs, Home borne IEDS (HMIEDs) and finally even Human borne IEDs (HBIEDs).
It is an improvised version of the country bombs made in Rayalaseema region where village factions use it to injure rivals .One such bomb was hurled in Hyderabad city at a marriage hall during TDP regime at a legislator by his rivals.
An improvised explosive device (IED), also known as a roadside bomb is a bomb fabricated in an improvised manner incorporating destructive, lethal, noxious, pyrotechnic, or incendiary chemicals and designed to destroy or incapacitate personnel or vehicles. In some cases, IEDs are used to distract, disrupt, or delay an opponent as a diversion.IEDs may incorporate military or commercially-sourced explosives, and often combine both types, or they may otherwise be made with homemade explosives (HME).
An IED typically consists of an explosive charge (potentially assisted by a booster charge), a detonator, and an initiation system (trigger), which is a mechanism that initiates the electrical charge that sets off the device. An IED designed for use against armored targets such as personnel carriers or tanks will be designed for armor penetration by using either a shaped charge or an explosively formed penetrator.
IEDs may be used in terrorist actions or in unconventional warfare by guerrillas or commando forces in a theater of operations. They are also used in Afghanistan by insurgent groups, and cadres of the rebel Tamil Tiger (LTTE) organization against military targets in Sri Lanka .The IED’s are also popular mode of weapons of the CPI (Maoists) to attack the police and Para military patrolling the forest belt in Andhra Pradesh and Dandakaranya. They fitted plastic buckets with timer detonators and placed them on roads used by para military forces in the forests.
How to make an IED and cost?
A scooter mechanic or even a school boycan assemble IEDs. Just like the workers at the fire cracker units, the segregation of the explosive, detonators and timers is a risky skill and many time the makers loose their arms and limbs or even eyes due to minor lapses. Most ofsich IED’s have so far been located to units of engineering works, (lathe machines to put holes into explosive containers etc).
Police officials say IED’s could be formulated with even information, guidelines provided on several websites of jihad operators. ‘It is just like making homemade chocolate or homemade wine. An IED could be prepared specially for every ocassion depending on size, capacity and also the quality of containers, trigger and detonators. An IED made of ammonium nitrate cost around Rs.3000 (explosive, container,. detonator , timer etc) . An IED made of RDX cost more – say upto Rs. 12,000 to above for a IED of half a kg of explosive.
Similar IED’s were used being used in most of the explosions in Hyderabad since 2003 to 2007 Terrorists made IED’s fitted in Tiffin boxes and children’s toys which exploded by remote with the aid of a mobile detonator . On Feb 21 , 2013 three IED’s made of amonium nitrate, detonator, timer kept in a steel box and hung to handles of bicycles in plastic carry bags had caused maximum damage
On 13th of July 2011, three IED’s were used to carry out a coordinated terrorist attack in Mumbai, killing 21 people and injuring 141 more. A vehicle borne IED, or VBIED, is a military term for a car bomb or truck bomb. These are typically employed by suicide bombers, and can carry a relatively large payload. They can also be detonated from a remote location In 2007 IED’s with heavy compounds of amonium nitrate were kept at both Lumbini garden and Gokul chat where the total toll had touched 44.
The term Improvised Explosive Device comes from the British Army in the 1970s, after the Provisional Irish Republican Army (IRA) used bombs made from agricultural fertilizer and semtex smuggled from Libya to make highly effective booby trap devices or remote-controlled bombs. However Iraq and Afghanistan take credit for assembling cheaper IEDs for use against the oppressive forces of the USSR and the US. Similar IEDS were also later further improvised in Vietnam War and also in battle firelds of Asian nations exploited by drug mafia.